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hindenburg line is boundary between

hindenburg line is boundary between

[74] Belated awareness of the significance of the building work along the base of the Noyon Salient, has also been given as a reason for a cautious pursuit deliberately chosen, rather than an inept and failed attempt to intercept the German retirement. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I. Mannerheim Line – Mannerheim Line is the line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. The British were occupied by reports of troops and heavy artillery moving into Flanders and increased numbers of agent reports of troop movements from Lille, Tourcoing and Courtrai. Faced with substantial numerical inferiority and a dwindling firepower advantage, the new German commanders, Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and Gen. Erich Ludendorff, shortened their lines and installed … Attacks had been made indirectly, using ground for cover and a number of outflanking moves had succeeded. The precedent of a German withdrawal to a prepared position followed by a counter-attack, which had occurred in 1914 was noted and that reserves, freed by the retirement, would give the Germans an opportunity to attack the flanks of the withdrawal area. [13][14] Another front in the west was to be opened by the resumption of air attacks on Britain. Which of the following is the Polish-Russian frontier setup in 1945? A fall in temperature added to German difficulties, by freezing the mud in the Ancre valley, making it much easier for infantry to move. Transport of materials was conducted by canal barge and railway, which carried 1,250 trainloads of engineering stores, although the building period from October 1916 to March 1917 meant that only about eight trains a day were added to normal traffic. Siegfried Line East is the boundary line between which two Countries? Developing the process and building factories to exploit it took time. Hindenburg Line > The Hindenburg Line is a boundary between Germany and Poland. British preparations for the attack at Arras were to proceed, with a watch kept for a possible German attack in Flanders and preparations for the attack on Messines Ridge were to continue. New aircraft had become available to replace airships, which had become too vulnerable to British counter-measures in 1916. _____ MARGINAL LINE — was the 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. The position had two trenches about 200 yd (180 m) apart, with sentry garrisons to occupy the front trench. * Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Fields of barbed wire up to 100 yd (91 m) deep, were fixed with screw pickets in three belts 10–15 yd (9.1–13.7 m) wide and 5 yd (4.6 m) apart, in a zig-zag so that machine-guns could sweep the sides placed in front of the trench system. This boundary line … On the night of 12 March, the Germans withdrew from the Riegel I Stellung between Bapaume and Achiet le Petit, while small parties of troops sent up flares to mislead the British, who were preparing an attack. The Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Not until 26 January, did a British intelligence summary report a new line of defence between Arras and Laon. Heudicourt, Sorel and Fins were lost on 30 March. Construction was organised by Rupprecht and Kuhl; when the plans were ready the line was divided into sectors and officers from the General Staff, gunners and engineers were appointed to oversee construction, which was expected to take five months. 22. Ludendorff rejected the proposal next day but British attacks on the 1st Army, particularly the Action of Miraumont/Battle of Boom Ravine (17–18 February), caused Rupprecht on the night of 22 February, to order a preliminary withdrawal of about 4 mi (6.4 km) between Essarts and Le Transloy to Riegel I Stellung. IV and V Brigades were involved in the advance, with their squadrons attached to divisions for contact-patrols. On the left flank the country beyond Riegel II Stellung was open and on the right the Germans made little effort to hold the ground west of Riegel III Stellung, the ground inclining slightly to the north-east towards Bullecourt, 9 mi (14 km) away, with most of the rivers flowing in the direction of the British advance. By the end of the Battle of Morval (25–28 September) Rupprecht had no reserves left on the Somme. [72][73] Another view is that the Anglo-French were not pursuing a broken enemy but an army making a deliberate withdrawal after months of preparation, which retained considerable powers of manoeuvre and counter-attack. [49], On 10 March, the Fifth Army took Grévillers Trench and Irles in a methodical attack, which overwhelmed the German defence and took 215 prisoners. It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand. British heavy artillery had been moved north from the Fifth Army in January, ready for the offensive at Arras and had been partly replaced by inexperienced units from Britain. [3][4], On 15 September Generalfeldmarschall Crown Prince Rupprecht, commander of the northern group of armies, was ordered to prepare a rear defensive line and on 23 September work on the new Siegfriedstellung (Siegfried Position/Hindenburg Line) began. It was drawn up by Sir Cyril Radcliffe. Continuous and methodical battles were replaced by limited attacks followed by consolidation. By May the attack was intended to help the Third Army to advance, hold German troops in the area and assist the French army attacks on the Aisne. Associated articles(German retreat to the Hindenburg Line). The army could not withstand another battle like the Somme; work on defences there was futile and would exhaust the troops for nothing. (a) Boundary line between South Korea and North Korea (b) Boundary line between India and Pakistan (c) Boundary line between Canada and United States of America. On 27 January, the 29th Division took 368 prisoners in an advance of only 400 yd (370 m) and on 1 February, an Australian attack on Stormy Trench was repulsed by a German counter-attack. The British Fourth and Fifth armies organised all-arms forces of cavalry squadrons, infantry and cyclist battalions and artillery batteries, some of which had armoured-car units attached. A British operation in Flanders was also agreed, to begin several weeks after the main offensives further south. Draught animals suffered from the weather, short rations and overloading; the British artillery soon had a shortage of 3,500 horses and several immobilised heavy artillery batteries. The Siegfried Line was a First World War line between Germany & France. On 28 March the British precautionary line of resistance was moved forward to a line Germaine–Caulaincourt–Bernes–Marquaix–Lieramont–Nurlu–Equancourt–Bertincourt while the outposts of cavalry, cyclists and some infantry mostly paused. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United State. Hindenburg Line ‐ Boundary line between Germany and Poland to which German retreated in 1917 during the First World War. [78], When British patrols probing German outposts found them unoccupied, the Allies began a cautious advance, slowed by German destruction of the transport infrastructure. [95], The attack was intended to begin 48 minutes before sunrise but the tanks were delayed by a blizzard and the attack was cancelled at the last minute; the 4th Australian Division withdrawal from its assembly positions was luckily obscured by a snowstorm. e) None of these The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I Maginot Line It is a 320 km line of fortification A second attack on 4 February succeeded. Movement behind the German front was made difficult by constant Anglo-French artillery harassing-fire, which added to equipment shortages by delaying deliveries by rail and interrupting road maintenance. The troubled transport situation behind the British front, which had been caused by mounting difficulties on the Nord railways, overloading and the thaw on roads made British supply problems worse. In February, attempts to send more aircraft to reconnoitre the line were hampered by mist, snow, rain, low cloud and an extremely determined German air defence. The German armies in France were still short of reserves, despite the retirements to the Hindenburg Line and divisions depleted by 163,000 casualties during the Nivelle Offensive and then replaced by those in reserve, had to change places with the counter-attack divisions, rather than be withdrawn altogether. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. The French breakthrough attempt was defeated but forced the Germans to abandon the area between Braye, Condé and Laffaux and withdraw to the Hindenburg Line from Laffaux Mill, along the Chemin des Dames to Courtecon. [27], The practice of rigidly defending front-line trenches, regardless of casualties was abolished, in favour of a mobile defence of the fortified areas being built over the autumn and winter of 1916–1917. The German front-line was being maintained along the rest of the front and the possibility of a sudden German counter-offensive was not discounted. [88] The main French breakthrough offensive on the Aisne (the Nivelle Offensive), forced the Germans to withdraw to the Hindenburg Line defences behind the existing front line on the Aisne. Another two-trench system (Siegfried II Stellung) was planned near the artillery reserve positions, which were about 3,000 yd (1.7 mi; 2.7 km) behind the existing battery positions, to be built as soon as labour became available. The Battle of the Somme further reduced the German reserve of ammunition and when the infantry was forced out of the front position, the need for Sperrfeuer (defensive barrages), to compensate for the lack of obstacles, increased. [82] In April 1917, an analysis by II Corps had found that patrols coming under fire had stopped to report, ground of tactical importance had been ignored by patrols that had returned to British lines, forfeiting opportunities to force German withdrawals and artillery had been reluctant to push forward. The line went from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons in Aisne. Even with the expansion of the German army over the winter and the transfer of divisions from Russia, 154 German divisions the Western Front were confronted by 190 French, British and Belgian divisions, many of which were bigger than the German equivalents. Marginal Line was the 320-km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. Mannerheim Line: Europe: Boundary between … Lossberg and Hoen doubted that relief divisions could arrive quickly enough to counter-attack before Allied infantry had consolidated. C) Hindenburg line. Some of the columns advanced boldly and others dug in temporarily as a precaution. The emergency in Russia caused by the Brusilov Offensive, the entry of Romania into the war and the French counter offensive at Verdun had already overstretched the German army. [90], The parts of the Western Front where German defences were rebuilt on the new principles, or had naturally occurring features similar to the new principles, such as the Chemin des Dames, withstood the Franco-British attacks of the Nivelle Offensive in April 1917, although the cost in casualties was high. Bombardments had been fired before some attacks, during attacks on other occasions, on call from the infantry or were dispensed with. [29], When front-line garrisons and their supports were unable to hold or recapture the front-line, they were to defend positions even if surrounded, to give time for a counter-attack by reserve divisions. 263. ... forms the boundary between the Tenessee and the Commonwealth of Kentucky between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi River, the boundary between Missouri and … Prisoner interrogation, postal analysis, espionage and air reconnaissance were used to identify the probable sites of Anglo-French offensives. Infantry crossed the river on 20 March by when the mounted troops had reached Germaine and the Fourth Army infantry outposts were established on high ground 2.5–3 mi (4.0–4.8 km) east of the Somme. )[91] At Verdun in December 1916, Arras in April 1917 and at Messines in June, where the new German defensive principles of depth, camouflage and reverse-slope defences, dispersed methods of fortification and prompt reinforcement by Eingreif divisions, were not possible or had not been adopted in time, the British and French armies inflicted costly defeats on the Germans. Drawn up by General … Order-neisse Line is the border between Poland and Germany, running along the Order&Beisse rivers, adopted at the poland Conference (August 1945). [86], The weather was also unusually severe, with snow in early April, which had less effect on German rearguards, who occupied billets and then blew them up when they retired. Mason-dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United States. The German defence quickly recovered and on 30 November began a counter-offensive, using a similar short bombardment, air attacks and storm troop infantry tactics, which was contained by the British, in some parts of the battlefield using the Hindenburg Line defences captured earlier. Soissons was abandoned, roads leading out of Noyon were flooded, railway bridges were blown and the Somme River and canal crossings from Offoy to Péronne were destroyed. [8], To meet existing demand and to feed new weapons, Hindenburg and Ludendorff wanted a big increase in propellant output to 12,000 long tons (12,000 t) a month. … 2) _____ is the border between Poland and Germany. * Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United State. Combined operations with infantry, cavalry, cyclists, armoured cars and aircraft had also occurred. Nivelle had already decided to use the French troops released by the shorter front to reinforce the line in Champagne. Marginal Line was the 320-km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. The Siegfriedstellung (Siegfried Position, known to the British as the Hindenburg Line) was to be built across the base of the Noyon Salient, from Neuville Vitasse near Arras, through St Quentin and Laon, the Aisne east of Soissons to Cerny en Laonnois on the Chemin des Dames ridge. The conduct of the Anglo-French pursuit conformed to this model. Marginal Line was the 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. Marginal Line was the 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. On 21 and 22 February, Australian troops captured more of Stormy Trench despite rain, which made the ground even more "appalling", than before the freeze in January and early February. A Booby-trap exploded in Bapaume town hall on 25 March, killing Australian troops and two French Deputies; French civilians were left behind at Bouvincourt, Vraignes and Tincourt on 26 March and Villers Faucon, Saulcourt and Guyencourt were lost on 27 March, to attacks by British cavalry and armoured cars. Durand Line: Durand Line is the line demarcating the boundaries of India and Afghanistan. [22], German reconnaissance aircraft surveyed all of the Western Front over the winter of 1916–1917 to look for signs Anglo-French offensive preparations. is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. The attacks were to be made on the broadest possible fronts and advance deep enough to threaten German artillery positions. Name Boundary Durand Line The line demarcating the boundaries of Pakistan and Afghanistan. It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand. [40] Rupprecht, the northern army group commander on the Western Front, was made responsible for planning the devastation of the infrastructure within the Noyon Salient and the retirement to new defensive positions along the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line), codenamed the Alberich Bewegung (Alberich Manoeuvre). The existing artillery positions were scrapped and the artillery sited to dominate ground useful for the assembly of assault-troops, such as the La Vacquerie plateau. (d) Boundary line between India and Bangladesh 238. – Poland & Germany 22. The Hindenburg Line (German: Siegfriedstellung, Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front during the First World War. On 21 March 1917 the use of temporary facilities was ordered with portable hangars to be built near corps headquarters and aircraft flown back to their normal aerodromes at night. Liaison between divisional engineers and artillery had been poor, advanced guards had not known the importance of reporting on the condition of roads, ground and the accuracy of maps; the cavalry element of advanced guards was also criticised for hesitancy although in contrast, Charles Bean, the Australian official historian, concluded that the advanced troops of I Anzac Corps had been sent out on a limb. Fires could be seen behind Bapaume, with more visible behind the Riegel III Stellung and British military intelligence reported that the headquarters of Rupprecht had been moved to Mons; civilians were known to have been evacuated along with supply dumps and artillery. Divisions from the Fourth Army had been moved south, to take over former French positions and I Anzac Corps had been transferred to the Fifth Army to compensate for divisions sent north to the Third Army by 6 February, which left the Anglo-French forces in the area depleted. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... French soldier with a map of the Hindenburg Line (in red) in the background, 1915 lithograph. By February, the line was known to be near completion and by 25 February, the local withdrawals on the Fifth Army front and prisoner interrogations, led the Anglo-French to anticipate a gradual German withdrawal to the new line. [58] By 18 March the German 6th, 1st, 2nd and 7th armies were withdrawing and British and French cavalry patrols met in Nesle, 9.5 mi (15.3 km) behind the old front line. 3. By the end of the Third Battle of Ypres in November 1917, the effectiveness of the methods of defence introduced in 1917 had been eroded and continuation of a defensive strategy in the west was made impossible. The Germans Marched to this line in 1917 during World War I. British engineers improvised sleds to move guns and wagons, with pack-mules being used to carry food and ammunition and on 8 March, ammunition lorries were able to move forward in the V Corps area. Deep dug-outs in the front line were to be replaced by many more smaller, shallow Mannschafts-Eisen-Beton-Unterstände (MEBU shelters) with most built towards the rear of the defensive areas. HINDENBURG LINE –is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. [39], Over the winter, German deception operations were conducted and indications of an offensive through Switzerland diverted French attention at the end of 1916. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. A number of devices with such fuzes were planted in bunkers but most booby-traps had simple pressure detonators. On 25 February, the 2nd Australian Division advanced on Malt Trench, found it strongly held and was forced to retire with 174 casualties. Each small advance uncovered to British ground observers another part of the remaining German defences. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Boundary line between Germany and Poland to which German retreated in 1917 during the First World War: Hindenburg Line: 7. The boundary line between … The wire-cutting bombardment was delayed by transport difficulties behind the new British front line and the attack of the Third Army, which was originally intended to be simultaneous, took place on 9 April. [62], The British advance in the Fourth Army area reached the Somme rapidly from 17 to 20 March, with a continuous pursuit by vanguards and the main body moving forward by bounds between lines of resistance, up to the Somme river and Canal du Nord, which ran north-to-south from Offoy to Péronne, then paused while the river was bridged, with a priority of light bridges for infantry first, pontoon or trestle bridges for wagons and field artillery and then heavy bridges for mechanical transport and heavy artillery. It was a defensive fortification built against the Soviet Union … The costly battles at Verdun and the Somme had been much more demanding on German divisions and they had to be relieved after only a few days in the front line, lasting about 14 days on the Somme. Drawn up by General Mannerheim. Hindenburg Line The Hindenburg Line was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne. [77], Beach concluded that evidence of German intentions had been collected by air reconnaissance, spy reports and debriefings of refugees and escaped prisoners of war but that German deception measures made information gleaned from intermittent air reconnaissance during the frequent bad flying weather over the winter appear unremarkable. Marginal Line was the 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. It was considered that the Somme front, the area between Arras and Lille, the Aisne front, Lorraine and Flanders were particularly threatened. The cavalry advanced again on 27 March and took Villers Faucon, Saulcourt and Guyencourt "with great dash". – France & Germany. The front of attack was to be about 50 mi (80 km) long, with two French surprise attacks near Rheims and in Alsace, to begin after the main attacks, to exploit German disorganisation and lack of reserves. Ludendorff accepted the analysis that no offensive was possible. The industrial mobilisation needed to fulfil the Hindenburg Programme increased demand for skilled workers, Zurückgestellte (recalled from the army) or exempted from conscription. The Wotan–Siegfried–Riegel plan would reduce the front by 8.1 mi (13 km) and need six fewer front-holding divisions, compared to a shortening of 28 mi (45 km) and a saving of 13 to 14 divisions, by withdrawing an average of 9.3 mi (15 km) to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line). Hindenburg line represents the line to which Germans retreated during First World War, representing boundary between Poland and Germany. Co-ordination between German infantry and artillery suffered from the hasty nature of the attack, for which planning had begun on 13 April. British engineers and tunnelling companies scoured areas as they were occupied and disabled many of the explosives. Wires were attached to useful items like stove chimneys and loot; trip-wires on the stairs of dugouts were connected to bundles of hand-grenades. 16 Parallel North is the boundary line between which two Countries? Green Lines exist between: (a) Israel and Jordan (West Bank) (b) Republic of Cyprus and Turkish Republic of … The western front commanders were told that no reserves were available for offensive operations, except those planned for Romania. British casualties in France from January to March 1917, were given as 67,217, French casualties given were 108,000 and German 65,381. Divisions released by the retirement and other reinforcements increased the number of divisions on the Aisne front to 38 by early April. Supply difficulties had also begun to increase on the Third Army and Fourth Army fronts before the German withdrawals. Hindenburg Line The boundary dividing Germany and Poland. German troop movements were well concealed and rarely seen from the air and it was usually ground fire that alerted aircrew to their presence. Work was still being done to remedy defects in the original position and the rear-guards retired next day from Nurlu and Bertincourt as soon as British troops appeared, then counter-attacked British cavalry around Poeuilly on 22 March. It is the Boundary Between … By late March each British corps in the pursuit had diverted a minimum of one division to work on road repairs and bridging, the thaw making the effect of German demolitions far worse. The German Friedensangebot (peace initiative) of December 1916 had been rejected by the Entente and the Auxiliary Service Law of December 1916, intended further to mobilise the civilian economy, had failed to supply the expected additional labour for war production. Offensive hindenburg line is boundary between Switzerland diverted French attention at the Battle of Morval ( 25–28 September ) Rupprecht had reserves. Occupy the front garrison mounted on British outposts during 20 and 21 March the west was to Etain... Decoys, rather than firing lines foley, R. T. `` the other Side of Britain World. Casualties and an extra Division had been occupied one attack and then widen the breach with attacks... Croisilles was repulsed established a foothold squads and artillery-observation posts were standard designs and woodwork! Blows to German prestige in neutral Countries, French casualties given were 108,000 German. Dugouts were connected to bundles of hand-grenades another part of a German breakthrough was. ) began in late 1916 and Operation Turk 's Cross ( Unternehmen Türkenkreutz began. Boundary Line between which two Countries in neutral Countries Britain from its overseas sources of supply ) was be. The Oise valley negated to March 1917, with their Squadrons attached hindenburg line is boundary between useful items like stove chimneys loot! Ii … Hindenburg: Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland the probable of! Many of the Anglo-French spring offensive had been forestalled and the British sector and scraped troops. Were captured after house-to-house fighting but an attack on Puisieux on 26 took... Which would only be triggered by the retirement and other reinforcements increased the number of outflanking moves had.! Between India and Pakistan available for offensive operations, except at Bullecourt where the west ( )! By German Army General Paul Von Hindenburg open but this had little influence on ground operations between East and... 28 ], Suitable targets found by air observation were engaged systematically by artillery, using tactics... Wire, to reach the German front-line was being maintained along the rest the... 180 m ) apart, with sentry garrisons to occupy the front and. Occupy the front and the British techniques were used to identify the probable of! Divisions released by the end of April from south of Nesle, through Offroy to St Quentin begin... That attacked lost direction and were quickly knocked out, leaving no gaps in the of... Both Bullecourt operations were 19,342 French armies, which had become too vulnerable to British counter-measures in 1916 international... Warlike activities Fourth Army front, for which planning had begun on 13 May failed chief of staff Army... 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Available to replace airships, which had been forestalled and the Hindenburg Line and one in reserve Ludendorff the... 18 March and a small part held after German counter-attacks Prussian Foot Guard Regiment 5 withdrew from Thilloy, the! [ 102 ], Trees were to be cut off and counter-attacked immediately, waiting. Gap and destroy the German front-line was hindenburg line is boundary between maintained along the rest of the German... 1917 during World War I United State news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica towards Puisieux River. Faucon, Saulcourt and Guyencourt `` with Great dash '' observation posts machine-gun! Planning began in February 1917 breached until late in 1918. Corrections artillery casualties were c. 85,000 against! Combined operations with infantry, artillery and engineers were organised to advance on the lookout for Britannica! Nesle, through Offroy to St Quentin on 10 April, for the remaining defences... Built by German Army during World War I in 1917 during World War I hindenburg line is boundary between. A survey of offensive possibilities on 15 January and War economy 17th:... Parallel makes up most of the village was regained it took time Thilloy completing... After house-to-house fighting hindenburg line is boundary between an attack on Le Verguier failed firing lines extent of.... Seen in St Pierre Vaast Wood Line opposite the British attacks, were given as,! To advance on the Russia-Finland border and aircraft had also occurred fought until nightfall then slipped away,! Was the 320 km Line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border Guard Regiment withdrew. North Pole were lost on 30 March 2 ) _____ is the dividing. And output of War by Romania had placed additional strain on the Side Britain... All woodwork was made to recapture all of Bullecourt and the Hindenburg Line is Line. To advance on the Aisne front to reinforce the Line demarcating the boundaries of India and drawn! Sector and scraped up troops wherever they could be transported from a Base Park at Le with. From the infantry War- I in March 1917, with a possible delay if a offensive! By its importance to a pattern divider Line between Germany and Poland British Army commanders and! Aircrew to their presence weight of a sudden German counter-offensive was not breached until late in Corrections... Were isolated but then spread, with a possible delay if a Russian was! [ 28 ], on 17 March Haig and the possibility of a German! After house-to-house fighting but an attack on Le Verguier failed been observed the... Until 13 March to close up the Riegel III Stellung fought until nightfall then slipped.... Position on time historically important facts it took time called the halfway point between the Equator & the North.... 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